"These and other critiques of the role of private foundations emerged from New Left scholar-activists seeking to uncover the emerging nongovernmental structures of power that, while operating under the rubric of “progressive” philanthropy, were working to undermine movements aiming for radical social change; they did so particularly in the name of containing Communism at home and abroad. Later, as global neoliberalism began to take hold, some scholars shifted the focus from foundations to the international NGOs that were growing in importance as the conventional wisdom of development theory turned increasingly to the market. In the mid-1990s, James Petras began to examine the role of NGOs in perpetuating systems of exploitation and directing movements and local organizations away from systemic critiques of their oppression and toward programs to incorporate the peoples of the developing world into the capitalist mainstream…"

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