Many recipients are active in campaigns demonizing Israel; some celebrated or denied the October 7 atrocities; and some partner with terror groups.

On October 12, 2023, UN OCHA-oPt launched the “OPT Flash Appeal,” seeking $294 million “to address the most urgent needs of 1,260,000 people in the Gaza Strip (Gaza) and the occupied West Bank, including East Jerusalem, for three months.” On November 3, the target amount was raised to $1.2 billion. The flash appeal was extended through March 2024 due to “continuing impediments to an effective and appropriately scaled humanitarian response.” An additional $2.8 billion “updated flash appeal” will be launched on April 17 “to cover the period through the end of 2024.”

According to the UN, as of April 15, the flash appeal had received $1.27 billion (103%) from government funders. This includes $649 million out of $629 million (103%) requested for October-December 2023 and $623 million out of $600 million (104%) requested for January-March 2024. (This funding is separate from and in addition to pre-war commitments made to UNRWA and numerous other UN agencies operating in Gaza.) 

Funding Geography

Of the total amount, 26% was earmarked solely for the Gaza Strip ($297.2 million), 6% was earmarked for Gaza and the West Bank ($72.5 million), and 64% was unspecified ($728.1 million).

Donors to the Flash Appeal

As of April 2, there were 110 donor entities to the flash appeal. Of the 110:

  • 50 governments
  • 8 UN entities
  • 27 UNICEF National Committees
  • 13 foundations
  • 6 NGOs (including Save the Children and Islamic Relief Worldwide)
  • 4 “Pooled funds” (including oPt Humanitarian Fund and the Central Emergency Response Fund)
  • Kuwait Red Crescent
  • Unnamed “Private” donors who granted $33.5 million to the World Food Programme, World Health Organization, oPt Humanitarian Fund, UNRWA, and OCHA

The largest donor was Germany ($147.7 million), followed by the United States ($114 million), and the United Arab Emirates ($103 million).

See Appendix 1 for donors to the flash appeal over $1 million. 

Recipient Organizations

64 organizations received funding via the flash appeal. 45 recipients were international and national NGOs. 

  • The NGO that received the largest amount of funding was the Norwegian Refugee Council ($35.67 million).
  • A number of recipients are listed as “International NGOs (Confidential)” and “National NGOs (Confidential).” In addition, some of the known recipients are international NGOs without an active presence in Gaza or the West Bank, raising a number of questions. The lack of transparency and the possibility that the grantees are problematic actors are concerning.
  • Many of the NGOs receiving funding from the flash appeal are active in anti-Israel demonization and BDS. Additionally, one recipient. Al Awda Health and Community Association, is affiliated with the PFLP terror group, while others regularly partner with terror-linked groups.
  • Another recipient, Palestinian Medical Relief Society, celebrated the October 7 atrocities and massacre. On October 7, 2023, the NGO’s president Mustafa Barghouti declared: “Today is a glorious day for the Palestinian resistance and people. The resistance paid with interest for the attacks of the terrorist settlers, and for the attacks against the Al-Aqsa Mosque. It paid with interest for those who normalize [their relations] with the occupation.” Additionally, according to Wattan, during a demonstration held “in support of the resistance in Gaza” on October 10, Barghouti stated, “These marches affirm the Palestinian people’s support in the resistance and that the Palestinian people is united wherever it is.” 
  • AISHA Association for Woman and Child Protection also received funding via the funding appeal. On October 16, 2023, Taghreed Jomaa, Chair of the Board, shared a Facebook post denying the Hamas massacre and that bodies of victims were burnt. The post suggested, using graphic images, that Israel was presenting  a picture of a burnt dog as that of a burnt child. The post, referring to a well-known hate propagandist, read: “Western support for Israel is because of a dog??? American journalist Jackson Hinkle revealed that the photo of the charred child published by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was fake. Netanyahu said that it was of an Israeli child who was burned by the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas). According to a report by Fatima Triki, the American journalist revealed that the photo of the alleged Israeli child is [actually] one of a dog in a veterinary clinic that was distorted using artificial intelligence, but Western media is quick to repeat Netanyahu’s lies without verification or evidence.”
  • The present capacity and access of the NGO recipients to effectively implement  projects, ensure aid reaches its intended recipients, and secure aid from diversion by malign actors are unknown. In fact, some of the grantees – notably Norwegian Refugee Council – fundamentally oppose vetting of beneficiaries.

Table 1: NGO Funding 

Norwegian Refugee Council$34.67 million
Save the Children$10.8 million
Humanitarian Coalition*$10.03 million
Cordaid International$5.48 million
Mercy Corps$4.5 million
Médecins du Monde$3.95 million
Agency for Technical Cooperation and Development (ACTED)$3.59 million
Oxfam$3.3 million
Premiere Urgence Internationale$2.96 million
Action Against Hunger (Acción Contra el Hambre)$2.4 million
American Near East Refugee Aid$2.3 million
Agriculture Development Association (PARC)$2.18 million
Ma’an Development Center$2.09 million
Terre des Hommes - Lausanne$1.91 million
Medical Aid for Palestinians$1.9 million
Palestinian Medical Relief Society (PMRS)$1.71 million
Catholic Relief Services$1.7 million
Al Awda Health and Community Association$1.6 million
WeWorld - Gruppo di Volontariato Civile Onlus$1.3 million
Action contre la faim International$1.1 million
ACT Alliance/ Norwegian Church Aid$940,000
Norwegian Aid Committee$920,000
War Child Holland$920,000
Action contre la faim International France$920,000
Kuwaiti Society for Relief $840,000
ACT Alliance/ DanChurchAid$830,000
Norwegian People’s Aid$750,000
Oxfam Belgium$720,000
Caritas Norway$650,000
Palestine Tomorrow Association$500,000
Alwea'am Charitable Society$420,000
Terre des Hommes International$350,000
Handicap International Luxembourg$320,000
Gaza Community Mental Health Programme$300,000
AISHA Association for Woman and Child Protection$300,000
CARE International$300,000
Women’s Affairs Center$300,000
Palestinian Environmental Friends$300,000
Assalama Charitable Society$230,000
Handicap International  - Humanity & Inclusion$200,000
Agencia Andaluza de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollio$190,000
Wafaa microfinance and capacity building$180,000
Caritas Luxembourg$110,000
Hayat Center for Emergency Preparedness$60,000
Rahma Worldwide$30,000

* The Humanitarian Coalition comprises 12 NGOs, self-described as “trusted Canadian humanitarian aid organizations.” However, NGO Monitor research shows that a number of coalition members have links to proscribed terror groups or partner locally in the West Bank and Gaza with NGOs affiliated with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).

UN Agency Funding

Twelve UN agencies – including UNRWA, UNICEF, and UN OCHA oPt Humanitarian Fund – received funding through the appeal. 

  • The largest recipient was UNRWA (362.4 million). Hamas’ and other terror groups’ exploitation of UNRWA and its facilities is well documented. Additionally, there is blatant evidence of UNRWA employees’ involvement in Hamas terrorism, including direct participation in the brutal October 7 slaughter.
  • A number of recipients are listed as “UN agencies (Confidental).” The lack of transparency and the possibility that the grantees are problematic actors are concerning.
  • The UN does not consider Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and the PFLP as terror entities, and UN agencies are not barred from working with them. 
  • The vast majority of employees of UN agencies in Gaza are local Palestinians. Their capacity to prevent aid diversion is unknown.

Table 2: UN Agency Funding

UN AgencyAmount
UNRWA$362.42 million
World Food Programme$308.49 million
UNICEF$131.53 million
oPt Humanitarian Fund$93.02 milion
World Health Organization$66.68 million
UNOCHA$13.07 million
Food and Agriculture Organization$12.17 million
UNFPA$6.45 million
UNOPS$3.34 million
United Nations Mine Action$1.26 million
UN Women$700,000
United Nations Development Programme$600,000

Breakdown of Flash Appeal Request Per Cluster as of April 2

OCHA organizes “Thematic Clusters” including Protection, Education, Shelter, Health and Nutrition, WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene), and the Food Security Sector (FSS). Within each cluster, NGOs serve as implementing partners with UN agencies, and in some cases, are responsible for leading the cluster.

In practice, the cluster system is a key international lobbying and action mechanism through which the Palestinian Authority, in cooperation with NGOs and UN agencies, advances its nationalist and political agenda and sustains the conflict.

  • According to documents published by the Food Security Sector, the Sector disburses funds and partners with the PFLP-linked Union for Agricultural Works Committee (UAWC), as well as Palestinian Agricultural Relief Committees (PARC).
  • The appeal received $43.3 million for “Protection,” a euphemism for anti-Israel propaganda and demonization. According to OCHA-oPt, this included “Monitoring, and reporting on violations of IHL and IHRL including tracking civilian casualties”; “Provision of legal aid to support freedom of movement outside Gaza”; “Delivering awareness raising on accessing legal aid in the context of IHL/IHRL violations and displacement”; “Legal cases/representation for individual victims of IHL/IHRL violations”; “West Bank: Protective presence.” The first four categories are often exploited by political NGOs for legal warfare (“lawfare”) against Israelis, and the last often involves bringing activists to the West Bank to prepare them to join anti-Israel BDS campaigns in their home countries.

Additionally, UNRWA is an implementing partner in all OCHA-oPt clusters (see UN document from 2021) and participates in their political advocacy (see more on UNRWA above).

Table 3: Funding by Cluster

ClusterFundedUnmetTotal Requested
Coordination Services$24.9 million$37 million$61.9 million
Education$35 million$79.4 million$114.5 million
Food Security$414.1 million-$414.1 million
Emergency Telecommunications$300,000$500,000$800,000
Health$113.4 million$90.7 million$204.2 million
Logistics$12.4 million-$12.4 million
Multi-Purpose Cash$36.6 million$64.6 million$101.1 million
Protection$43.3 million$7.3 million$50.6 million
Shelter$68 million$141.2 million$209.2 million
WASH$54.7 million$93.8 million$148.6 million
Multiple Field Clusters (shared)$49.9 million-$49.9 million
Nutrition$9.5 million$13.9 million$23.4 million

Appendix: Donors to Flash Appeal over $1 million

Germany$147.69 million
United States$114.01 million
United Arab Emirates$103.04 million
Switzerland$94.81 million
ECHO (European Union)$82.98 million
United Kingdom$53.53 million
France$53.33 million
Norway$43.86 million
Canada$43.80 million
Belgium$38.27 million
Private$33.54 million
Saudi Arabia$27 million
Japan$23.03 million
Australia$21.50 million
Denmark$20.19 million
Netherlands$19.74 million
Sweden$17.26 million
Central Emergency Response Fund$15.71 million
European Commission$15 million
“Occupied Palestinian territory”$10 million
Spain$9.8 million
Portugal$9.68 million
Ireland$8.94 million
Italy$7.81 million
Luxembourg$5.77 million
New Zealand$4.49 million
Russian Federation$4 million
Kuwait$2.28 million
Austria$2.17 million
Slovenia$2.12 million
Poland$1.63 million
Uzbekistan$1.5 million
Kazakhstan$1.1 million
China$1 million
Turkiye$1 million